Proposal for Peace in Northeast Asia and Stability
   -- Three Key Words --

Junichiro Owaki
Representative, JFFSI
(The Japan Forum for Future Strategic Initiative)

1, Introduction
As we can understand through this conference, there have been various
attempts to promote peace and stability in Northeast Asia through
international cooperation in such fields as: (1) Development of natural
resources, energy, and infrastructure, (2) economic integration:
currency FTA, Development Fund, (3) political integration、(4) cultural
integration, etc. 1)

Along with the progress of China’s economy, relations among NorthEast
Asian countries have become even more complicated as well as deepened.
Yet, it is increasingly becoming a matter of concern that tension is
growing among those countries over the issue of territory, preservation
of natural resources, and view of history.

Each country in Northeast Asia has its own pride and self-respect. As a
result, there have been constantly friction and conflicts of some kind
or another. With respect to the current situation in NorthEast Asia, it
is still a long way to go before even an entrance to the solution can
be found.

It is important to take counter-measures to deal with those critical
situations. It is even more important, however, to draw a design for
long-term solution to realize co-existence and mutual prosperity. So, I
want to draw your attention to a different perspective and discuss how
to solve the problems on a long-term basis.

II. Current Situation in Northeast Asia

1. Japan-China relations

Northeast Asia has been rapidly developing in terms of the size of
economy, the rate of economic growth, the amount of trade, etc.

Particularly, its foreign currency reserves, which are almost half of
those of the whole world, have enormous impact on the international
money market. Along with economic development, cultural as well as
economic exchanges among the countries in Northeast Asia are becoming
increasingly active every year.

Recently, however, an anti-Japanese movement over such issues as
territories, school history textbook, etc. has become active in China
and South Korea. For example, in August last year, on the occasion of
the Asian Cup Soccer Games held in China, many supporters in some
cities in China did violent deeds against the Japanese. This year those
anti-Japan demonstrations have become even more intensified.

In April this year, in particular, mass demonstrations took place in
major cities in China. Some demonstrators used violence and damaged the
building of Japanese Embassy, Consulate, and private business companies.
The Japanese government has asked the Chinese government for apology
and compensation for the damages. In response, however, the Chinese
government has refused to apologize and, on the contrary, accuses the
Japanese government for its “failure to apologize” for the invasion
of China by the Japanese military in the past. Furthermore, China
strongly opposes the visit to the Yasukuni Shrine by Japanese Prime
Minister Koizumi. This problem has not been solved even though the
leaders of both countries have consulted many times. As of now, it is
unlikely that a solution can be found in the near future. Behind those
phenomena of disputes and conflicts, it is pointed out, there are
differences in the view of history on both sides of Japan and China.
Those differences are derived from the difference in terms of the view
of values, the view of life and death, the view of culture, etc. in the
two countries. 2)

China insists that the Chinese moral view of values is the universal
one from the aspect of the world civilization, and asserts that “Since
the Japanese government has admitted that Japan committed wrong doings
in the past, it is not understandable for the Chinese that government
leaders and officials repeat their words and deeds denying the past
history" and that “at the Japanese leaders pay a visit to the Yasukuni
Shrine where the A-class war criminals are deified.” 3)

Those assertions by the Chinese side have many things for the Japanese
to learn from. They may be used as references in re-examining the
conventional relations between the two countries.

On the Japanese side, however, there are also many things to be
understood by the Chinese. Among others, one thing to be recognized is
this: “It is not true that Japan has not redressed at all its wrong
doing during the war. Ever since the diplomatic relations have been
normalized, Japan has offered a huge amount of economic assistance to
China for the past more than 20 years. Actually, Japan has given the
largest amount of ODA (official development assistance) to China. The
Chinese people have not been informed of this fact. Most Chinese
students studying in Japan were astonished to know that fact.” Also,
the Japanese side makes such assertion as “In the past the Chinese
communist regime has oppressed and even murdered millions of people by
using its police and military forces. Yet, the school history
textbooks have no mention to those facts,” “The Chinese government
has been giving anti-Japanese education to its people by exaggerating
the number of victims and incidents of ‘atrocity’ by the Japanese
military during the war. This anti-Japanese education has caused to
bring about the increase in anti-Japanese sentiments and
demonstrations by the Chinese people,” etc. Thus, the relations
between Japan and China are expected to continue to have difficulties
in the days ahead.

2. Japan-Korea relations

60 years after the end of World War II, the relationship between Japan
and South Korea has also entered quite a new stage. What is common to
both countries is that they made efforts for economic development. As a
result, Japan has become the second largest economy in the world; Korea
has been able to join the club of the advance nations in the world.

In other aspects, Japan has been seeking after peace with its “Peace
Constitution,” while South Korea has been seeking after
the“Unification between North and South.” Yet, both countries are
currently faced with many problems.

One of the greatest obstacles to peaceful unification on the Korean
Peninsula is the existence of the armistice line on the 38th parallel.
The North-South Problem” on the Korean Peninsula is not only a problem
between North and South Koreas but also a serious one for all the
countries in the region of Northeast Asia, the national interests of
all those countries involved are mutually intertwined in complicated
ways. It can be said that this is a destiny coming from the
geopolitical conditions.

Historically, Korea, which is located between continental powers and
oceanic powers, had to become a “corridor” over the competing powers
seeking to safeguard their life line. Since ancient ages, many of the
conflicts in East Asia were derived from the Korean Peninsula.
Therefore, it is not an exaggeration to say that there will be no peace
in East Asia without peaceful unification of the Korean Peninsula.

It would be ideal if the unification of Korean Peninsula would bring
about a good result in the sense that it would not become a negative
factor for all the neighboring countries. Yet there will still remain a
question as to who will guarantee peace on the Korean Peninsula. In
that sense, the Six-Party Talks are important. Currently, the Six-Party
Talks seem to focus on the issue of nuclear development by North Korea.
Before the war, Japan was encircled by the “ABCD encircling net
(A-America, B-Britain, C-China, D-Dutch)” and was obliged to resort
to the surprise attack on the Pearl Harbor. There are some similarities
between the situation of Japan in those days and the situation of North
Korea in these days. The North Korean regime needs to be very careful
not to repeat the same mistake as the military leadership in Japan.

Then, how can true peace be realized in Northeast Asia? I think it is
necessary to put together the lessons, experiences, and wisdom from
more original, global, and historic viewpoints and find a true solution
to this question, including the question as to how to design this area
after the Korean Peninsula has been peacefully re-united. 4)

III. Proposals for building peace and stability in Northeast Asia

1. Creation of value perspective and vision for co-existence and mutual prosperity

Since the beginning of the 20th century up until today, many scholars
of civilization have warned about the negative aspects of this
civilization of science and technology such as the increase in the
military threat of nuclear weapons, increase in the gap between the
rich and the poor, dehumanization, etc. This civilization of science
and technology has been nurtured on the soil of western civilization
with individuality, rationalism, and empiricism. Globalization centered
on science and technology has destroyed the traditional values of each
nation, bringing about social confusion to every country in the world.

I would like to find a solution in the oriental soil. When I was
studying philosophy and theology in the United States, the most
shocking discovery was the fundamental difference in paradigm. People
in the West grasp things individually by separating them from their
environment, while people in the Orient are used to grasping things in
relationship. These two different approaches to things refer to the two
sides of substance, or the aspect of individuality and the aspect of
connectedness of things. It is insufficient to grasp a thing from the
one aspect only.

In the United States and Europe the importance of individual moral
virtues (purity, honesty, righteousness, temperance, courage, wisdom,
self-control, endurance, independence, self-help, autonomy, fairness,
diligence, innocence, etc.) is emphasized, while Confucianism, which is
common to the three countries in East Asia, emphasizes the importance
of social norms (“The Five Moral Rules”) based on the family.

These Five Moral Rules refer to the rules governing the five human
relationships, namely, affection between father and children; justice
and righteousness between sovereign and subject; distinction between
husband and wife; order between elder and younger siblings; and trust
among friends. In the Orient, these have been regarded as the basis for
human relationships. Also, loyalty of subordinates toward their
superior, filial piety of children toward their parents, and fidelity
of wife toward her husband have been regarded and inherited until today
as the three great virtues. Currently, what the West needs is the
revival of social norms such as loyalty, filial piety and fidelity
emphasized in the Orient; what the Orient needs is the revival of
individual morality emphasized in the West.

Japan used to be known to be the “country of loyalty.” As a result of
Japan’s defeat in World War II, however, the virtues of loyalty and
patriotism have faded away particularly among young people in Japan. As
a result of modernization and the occupation policies by the United
States and its allied powers, Japan seems to have completely lost these
three great virtues of the Orient. Yet, the recent booming of the
Korean dramas indicates that there still remains, in the depth
consciousness of the Japanese, the sentiment of cherishing these three
traditional virtues of the Orient. That is the reason, it seems, why
each one of the Japanese has been inspired by the Korean dramas which
have visibly reminded them of the traditional Oriental values lost in
the post-war Japan. In that sense, the booming of the Korean dramas can
be regarded as a social phenomenon of restoration of the Japanese
identity. This tradition of loyalty, filial piety and fidelity which
is still alive in Korea is expected to revive not only Japan and China
but also the western world.

I believe that those three great virtues of the Orient have the
potential for overcoming the barriers of national egoism and
resurrecting not only Northeast Asia but also the whole world. Now is
the time to utilize those three virtues to liberate the world from the
bondage of egoism and realize true peace.

In the beginning of the 20th century there were three men who advocated
the Oriental thought and asserted in common that “Asia is one.” They
are Tenshin Okakura (who died in 1903) from Japan, Sun Wen (who died in
1924) from China, and An Jung-geun (who died in 1910) from Korea. It is
necessary to re-examine the ideal of those noble men in search for the
way for Northeast Asia. What is necessary from now on is not an
ideology, nor religion, but awareness of common consciousness that all
human beings are the members of the global family on the planet called
the Earth. True peace and stability in Northeast Asia can be realized
by building a vision of interdependence, mutual prosperity and
universally shared values which can also serve as the common idea for
the global family of humankind. Japan, Korea and China, which have the
tradition of cherishing the values of filial piety, loyalty, and
fidelity, can greatly contribute to the world in that sense.

2. Deeper human love (Parental love)

It is even more important to have a dream of co-existence and mutual
prosperity than to resort to political and diplomatic pressure. Yet, it
is our sad, inclined human nature that we cannot not do what we know is
necessary. It is probably because human beings are essentially Homo
amans (loving beings) rather than Homo sapiens Homo sapiens
(intelligent be-ing).

Since a few years ago, Japan has been overrun by a South Korean TV
drama entitled “A Winter Sonata,” whose theme is the seemingly
stubborn attachment by a man and a woman to their first love for each
another. In Japan, it has traditionally been regarded as a virtue to
conceal personal feelings and refrain from conveying them to others as
indicated by such sayings as “Love should be kept secret”, “Eyes are
as eloquent as the tongue,” etc. In this Korean drama, however, a
handsome man repeats the words “I love you! That attracted many
Japanese women. In particular, the Japanese middle-aged women, who had
not experienced to be loved by men with such a direct way, were
completely fascinated. As a result, many of them went to sight-seeing
tour in Korea. It is reported that it has had economic and cultural
effects equivalent to works by tens of thousands of ambassadors.

Two most serious areas in the world today are the Middle East and the
Korean Peninsula.

The origin of the conflicts in the Middle East can be
traced back to the conflict between two women, namely, Abraham’s wife
and his mistress. Christianity, which has become a world religion, was
also born in the Middle East. Those who believe in Judaism,
Christianity and Islam respectively are three brothers who worship the
same one God and regard Abraham as their ancestors.

Those three religions preach God and His love. Yet, they have been fighting
endlessly because love for those who are their fellow countrymen
becomes hatred against those who are not. Thus, cruel and brutal
incidents caused by near-relation hatred have been repeated in Middle

China and Taiwan are like twin brothers. So are South Korea and
North Korea. The ancestors of the Japanese can be traced back to
Mongoloid, to which the Koreans also belong. China, Korea and Japan can
be regarded as three brothers. In order to stop the quarrels, hatred
and fighting among siblings, it is necessary to restore parental love.
Brothers can be united through parental love. Parental love has no
boundaries. It is altruistic, selfless love. It can overcome economic
national interests, and nation-centered sentiments. It is the existence
of parents that enables the family to be formed. Siblings who have been
divided and in conflict can become united, centering on their parents.
The struggles between North and South Korea on the Korean Peninsula can
also be solved when both sides return to parental love on a higher

While Japan is a nation of loyalty (collective ethics),
Korea is a nation of filial piety (family ethics). Koreans still have
heart of ancestor worship. The spirit of filial piety serves as a
driving force in the Korean society. Therefore, it is more effective to
deal with North Korea with this spirit of filial piety rather than with
power and threat based on the US military forces. The catch phrases
which brought about the history of modern age were the slogans of
liberty, equality and fraternity. The United States has been trying to
expand freedom by hoisting the banner of freedom and with its strong
military forces. Communism and socialism which hoisted the banner of
equality have already lost their power. These days the slogan of
fraternity (brotherly love) is losing its attractive power. It seems
that the time has come when the banner of liberty, equality and
fraternity should be replaced by the banner of “true love(parental
love)”. It is this love that serves as the foundation of Christian
values. Christians believe that love comes from God. (The First Letter
by John 4:7-8) Love taught by Christianity, Mercy by Islam, Mercy by
Buddhism, Bakti by Hinduism can be regarded as various expressions of
the same love. The ultimate source of that love, which is called in
various ways such as God, Allah, Heaven, Dharma, Brahman, etc. can also
be regarded as various expressions of the One Being, the Parents of all
humankind. The family cannot come into being without parents. Now is
the time when all siblings should become united under the parental love
of the same one Being, who has been called by various names. Then, it
will be possible to overcome their mutual hatred in the past and
realize the true global family as true brothers and sisters.

3. NGO activities

Historically, the age when government of nation-states took initiative
over their people has passed, and, after the age when enterprises took
the lead, we now live in an age of civil society when individual
persons take the lead. Politicians are so concerned about their
constituency that they can hardly get involved in long-term policies
and major strategies dealing with the world. Because of national
interests, government leaders and bureaucrats also have difficulty in
quickly taking action with new moves toward an ideal or dream. In that
sense, it is easier for citizens to communicate with one another,
express their opinions frankly, and put their words into action From
now on, it is becoming very important for citizens to improve and
elevate their nations by monitoring the government policies which tend
to pursue national interests. That should be the basis of the
philosophy for citizens and their solidarity. It is necessary for them
even to change the direction of their own country. That is why the
role of citizens is becoming ever more important in the days ahead in
this age of civic activities and NGO.

1) Cultural Power which has a remarkably influential power for creating peace

At this point, as one good example related to this conference, I would
like to talk about a successful case of cultural exchange through an
organization called the Japan-Korea Cultural Exchange Council.

The Japan-Korea Cultural Exchange Council was established in 1998 on
the basis of the proposal jointly made by the governments of Japan and
Korea. On the occasion of its first conference held in Seoul, Korea, in
1999, it was decided to promote a project to get registered as a world
heritage the ancient tombs and wall paintings during the Koguryo period
in the northern part of Korea. The Japanese representative at the
conference was Dr. Ikuo Hirayama, President of National Tokyo
University of Fine Arts and Music, Japanese art painter, and a member
of UNESCO Committee of Japan. As an atomic bomb victim in Hiroshima, he
has been willing to work for peace. So, he endeavored very positively
for this project to the point of investing huge amount of his own money.
Thanks to the efforts by Mr. Hirayama and many other citizens of Japan
and Korea, those ancient tombs and wall paintings in North Korea were
registered as a world heritage in 2004. The fact that those cultural
and historic things were recognized as a world heritage means not only
that they will be successfully preserved but also that the area where
those things exist must be kept as peaceful zone. North Korean
government must remove its military facilities such as anti-aircraft
guns in the neighborhood in order to open the site to the people who
want to do sightseeing there.

It is said that preparations are being made to hold in front of these
ancient tombs a symposium on fine arts of Asia. The wall paintings of
Dunhaang (China), Yalujiang (North Korea), and
Takamatsuduka-kofun(burial mounds, Japan) belong to the same stream of
cultural history.

Furthermore, Japan-South Korea Cultural Conference has been advocating
a proposal that the Korean Peninsula should be neutralized eternally
and that the armistice line on the 38th parallel should be made a
permanent peace zone where natural ecology can be preserved. 5)

2) Current Situation of NGOs in Japan

The process of internationalization and modernization can usually be
divided into three stages. The first stage is from the birth of Meiji
government to the end of World War II; the second is from the end of
WWII to the 1970s; the third is after 1970s. The first stage was the
stage when Japan was partially internationalized, centering on
government officials. The second stage was when the Japanese middle
class was internationalized, centering on enterprises. The third
stage was the age of total internationalization in which the general
public also participated. It can be said that the first stage was
centered on importation of scientific technology, industry and
material civilization; the second stage was the period of American
style political democratization; the third stage, which is called the
period of the third opening of the nation, is the age of total
internationalization including culture. In Japan there is a tendency
to make a distinction between NGOs (non-governmental organizations)
and NPOs (Non-Profit Organizations). It is in the 1980s that NGO
activities began to spread in Japan though there were a few front
runners like Japan Overseas Christian Medical Cooperative Service
(JOCS) in the 1960s and Japan Volunteer Center (JVC) founded in 1979
to help refugees in Indo-China. The number of the NGOs in this narrow
sense is currently 391.

On the other hand, the history of NPOs in Japan is comparatively new.
The great earthquake which occurred in Hanshin area (centered on Kobe
and Osaka) in January 1995 elevated civic consciousness of citizens
for volunteer activities. In December 1998, the national parliament
adopted the NPO-related bills, which would make it easier for
volunteers to have their organizations and groups officially
registered as NPOs. As a result, the number of registered NPOs has
been rapidly increasing. As of June 2004, the number of registered
NGOs is 17,421, of which 37.9 % are related to health, medical care,
and welfare activities; 10.9 % are related to academic, cultural and
sports activities; 9.8 % are related to community service; 9.7 % are
related to healthy nurturing of children; 6.7 % are related to social
education; 4.6 % are the NGO in the narrow sense engaged in
international cooperation activities.

International cooperation of Japan makes a remarkable contrast with
advanced OECD nations in the sense that most money is used on the basis
of the government policies.

Only 0.51% (in the fiscal year 2001), or five billion yen, of the ODA
budget of Japan was given to NGOs. In 1989 Japanese government began to
help NGOs with the amount of 100 million yen. Even after 11 years since
then, the amount of financial support for NGOs is only five billion.
Isn’t the speed of increase too slow? The United States government
gives 45% of its ODA budget to NGOs through USAID; Canada gives 8.5%
through CIDA; the Netherlands 10%; Germany 6.9% ; Britain 9.1 %;
various organizations of the United Nations also give higher rate of
their budget to NGOs. For instance, UNFPA (United Nations Population
Fund) consigns 18.4% of its total annual appropriation (in the fiscal
year of 1999) to NGOs. 20% of the total amount of the official
development assistance by 22 developed countries is used through NGOs.
Japan should think of giving at least 20% of its ODA budget, namely
more than 196 billion yen, to NGOs. The current amount of five billion
yen is far too small. 6)

It is only since 1996 that the Japanese government started its regular
consultation NGOs in Japan. In 2002 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
began to appoint an ambassador in charge of NGO affairs. Thus, dialogue
with NGOs and evaluation of NGOs in consultation with NGOs are
gradually progressing. Both the administration and NGO seem to be
making utmost efforts under limited conditions to form compromises and
partnerships. Yet, the officials on the administrative side do not have
determination or eagerness to risk their positions in order to support
NGOs and connect them with effective enterprises for development.

In order for the people to be able to live a fruitful life worth living,
it is necessary to promote altruistic love and volunteer spirit instead
of egoistic interest in making profit. In that sense, it is
increasingly important to nurture volunteers, NGOs, and NPOs
(Non-Profit Organizations) along with privatization and deregulation.
As a matter of fact, however, the promotion of NGOs and NPOs , like
privatization, is not going on quickly enough in Japan. What Japan
currently needs are more internationally mind-set political leaders
willing to promote NGO activities to raise in a short period many more
internationally useful people. Many conscientious people, including
myself, are longing for the appearance of such leaders and political
groups which support them.

3) Attempt by JFFSI

In the 1990s I was engaged in NGO activity in South America and the
Caribbean nations. During those days I keenly felt the necessity for
creating a route for sending a large number of people from Japan. My
idea was supported by Mr. Shintani, director of Nihon-Sohken (The Japan
Research Institute, Ltd.), the largest civil think-tank in Japan. Thus,
in January 2001 Mr. Shintani and I jointly established the Japan Forum
for Future Strategic Initiative (JFFSI). 7)

At the end of last year the JFFSI was officially recognized as a NPO
registered with the Japanese government. Through internet, JFFSI always
makes public its knowledge and information free of charge. Since last
year, in particular, the contents of the events held by JFFSI are
broadcast by means of the broadband technology (patent is pending).
Everybody in the world can enjoy the programs with clear sound and
image, like TV, with no passwords and free of charge. I have been able
to substantiate my original idea without particular sponsors. I really
feel to the fullness of my heart that, where there is a will, there is
a way.

This organization aims at reviving Japan. To that end, it proposes to
transform Japan from a negative peace-loving nation to a positive
peace-loving nation. Up until now in Japan, when peace is talked about,
it has been more popular to use non-military, negative expressions such
as denunciation of war, abolition of military forces, non-nuclear three
principles, etc. Our organization raises the question “What can Japan
do for the sake of realizing of world peace?” We want to utilize the
non-military constitution of Japan and positively deploy a strategy for
world peace so that Japan can make positive contribution to the world
by non-military means. 8) Thus, our organization upholds a motto,
“Serve society through proliferation of Knowledge!” and is managed by
voluntary activities by the members, most of them are intellectuals who
have the spirit of serving society.

Furthermore, this NGO has been giving policy proposals in many fields
of Japan such as medical treatment, agriculture, economy, environment,
nuclear power, industry- academia-government complex, education,
defense, etc. In particular, it proposes to make it a national policy
to establish an international volunteer system.

We are convinced that establishing that kind of international volunteer
system will be an effective measure to inspire the young people in
Japan who have lost their identity and to bring about revival of Japan
in a declining situation. 9)

In this regard, the other day a Korean person has proposed that this
plan should be promoted jointly by both Japanese and Koreans. I would
rather think that it should be promoted as a volunteer activity on the
world scale by involving not only Japan and Korea but also China,
Russia, and the United States. Is this not a project worth considering?

4) Establishing an educational institution for Asian leadership training

The educational field of Japan is confronted with difficulties of
management due to the falling birthrate. In addition, the government
has re-organized national universities as independent administrative
corporations, which are almost privately managed educational
institutions. As a result, national universities are forced to become
financially independent. Unlike China and Korea, Japan did not become a
divided nation. Yet, domestically Japan is seriously divided in terms
of ideology.

In 1975, Japanese Government invited the United Nations to establish
one of its UN Universities in Tokyo. Japan pays for the expenses for
purchase of its land and construction of its buildings. Furthermore,
the Japanese government pays for more than 60% of the total budget. And
yet, the UN University in Tokyo serves only as a research institution
without being effectively utilized. It is desirable that educational
institutions in Japan will have more cooperation with the UN University
and other educational institutions so that they can become more
internationalized and contribute to the benefit of the world. In order
to raise and send out many more international volunteers, as I
mentioned earlier, it will be very significant for peace and stability
of Northeast Asia to establish educational institutions for leadership
training for Northeast Asia and at the same time make plans for that
purpose. 10)

As I have explained, I think we can safely say that from now on the key
words for opening a peaceful age are: 1) creation of a new idea for
co-existence and mutual prosperity, 2) parental love, and 3) NGO

In order to realize peace, it is necessary for individuals and
organizations to get rid of egoism and for nations to grow out of
national ethno-centrism. The question is how to bring about change in
consciousness and paradigm. 11)

Arnold Toynbee enumerated four types of response to the challenges from
modern civilization, namely, “escape to the past” type (worship of
heroes), “escape from reality” type (worship of science), “escape to
the future” type (Communism), and “transformation” type (self-change).
12) He recommended us to respond courageously to the challenges from
history as Jesus did two thousand years ago by transforming himself in
a high mountain. As he said, the right historic response for us to
choose would be the type of future-oriented self-transformation.

May 26-28, 2005 in Moscow, 2005 Moscow, Russia,International Conference
on Innovative Approaches To Peace and Stability in Northeast Asia 13)


1)DRC (Development Research Center of China/ NIRA(National Institute for
Research Advancement Of Japan), “Joint Report and Policy
Recommendations on Strengthening Economic Cooperation among China, Japan
and Korea”,10/2003, Trilateral Joint Research

2)Zhi uDah, “Thinking Cultural Relations between China and Japan,”
International Japan Study Center, Hosei University, 10/04//2004, pp.15-16.

3)Yan Tong Myong, “Position of History Issue in the Relations between
China and Japan,” Ibid., pp.4-7, Shan Fhoi Kang, “Psychological
Structure of War Victim Consciousness of Chinese,” Ibid., pp. 30-39.

4)NIRA, “The East Asian Corridor and the implication of EU’s
Experience for East Asia,”4/2000.

5)Kim Yong-Un, “Future Design for Japan, Korea, and Asia,” Lecture
Meeting in Japan on 4/1/2005, pp. 11-12.

6)Setsuko Mekada, “Comparative Study of 6 Countries about NGO Sectors,”
Japanese Ministry of Finance,4/3/16,/2004 p. 31, pp. 216-218.

7) JFFSTI(Japan Forum for Future Strategic Initiative)’s website;、
8)Haruo Nishihara, “Japan’s New Positive National Strategy for Peace,”
Japan Lecture, 2/1/2005, pp.10-11.

9)Our basic idea is as follows;
a) To dispatch the youth in the 20s to overseas volunteer activities for
2 years, and to provide them with domestic activities as optional;
b)To make qualified for volunteer activities those graduates who have
attended this programs;
c) To send aged people over 60 together with the youth as partners;
d) The budget should mainly be covered by ODA.

10)APU (Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University) was established on April,
2000, by Ritsumaikan University   with support from Oita Prefecture
government. This idea originated from the Vision for Asia Pacific
University proposed on August, 1978 at the 11th International Conference
on World Peace sponsored by PWPA. See:, and

11)Li Gan-zhe, “The Paradigm Change of Regional Cooperation in
Northeast Asia,” 10/2004, ERC, Nagoya University

12)Arnold J. Toynbee, “An Historian’s Approach to Religion,” 3/1973,
Oxford University Press.

13) Organized by: Russian Political Science Association (RPSA)
In cooperation with: Center for Korean Studies of the Institute for the
Far East of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Center for Euro-Atlantic Security; Federation for Peace and Conciliation;
Center for East Asia and Shanghai Cooperation Inter-religious
and International Federation for World Peace
Organization Studies of the MGIMO University